Monmouth County, New Jersey facts for kids
Quick facts for kids
The boardwalk in Asbury Park
Location within the U.S. state of New Jersey
New Jersey's location within the U.S.
|Named for||Rhode Island Monmouth Society or Monmouthshire|
|Largest city||Middletown Township (population)
Howell Township (area)
|• Total||665.32 sq mi (1,723.2 km2)|
|• Land||468.79 sq mi (1,214.2 km2)|
|• Water||196.53 sq mi (509.0 km2) 29.54%%|
625,846 (2016 est.; 5th largest)
|• Density||1,341/sq mi (517.8/km2)|
|Congressional districts||4th, 6th|
Monmouth County is a county located in Central New Jersey, in the United States within the New York metropolitan area, and the northernmost county along the Jersey Shore. As of the 2016 Census estimate, the county's population was 625,846, making it the state's fifth-most populous county, representing a decrease of 0.7% from the 2010 Census, when the population was enumerated at 630,380, in turn an increase of 15,079 from 615,301 at the 2000 Census. As of 2010, the county fell to the fifth-most populous county in the state, having been surpassed by Hudson County. Its county seat is Freehold Borough. The most populous place was Middletown Township, with 66,522 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Howell Township covered 61.21 square miles (158.5 km2), the largest total area of any municipality.
Monmouth County ranked 38th among the highest-income counties in the United States as of 2011, placing it among the top 1.2% of counties by wealth. As of 2009, it was ranked 56th in the United States by personal per-capita income.
An English navigator, Henry Hudson, and his crew aboard the Dutch vessel Half Moon, in 1609, spotted land in what is now Monmouth County, most likely off Sandy Hook; however, some historical accounts credit this landing to present-day Keansburg. Among the first European settlers and majority landowners in the area was Richard and Penelope Stout. Penelope miraculously survived her wounds from a native attack in Sandy Hook and further lived to the age of 110. Additionally, a group of Quaker families from Long Island who settled the Monmouth Tract, an early land grant from Richard Nicolls issued in 1665. They were followed by a group of Scottish settlers who inhabited Freehold Township in about 1682–85, followed several years later by Dutch settlers. As they arrived in this area, they were greeted by Lenape Native Americans, who lived in scattered small family bands and developed a largely amicable relationship with the new arrivals. Enslaved Africans were present in the area from at least 1680, and by 1726 made up 9% of the total population of the county.
Monmouth County was established on March 7, 1683, while part of the province of East Jersey. On October 31, 1693, the county was partitioned into the townships of Freehold, Middletown and Shrewsbury. Its name may come from the Rhode Island Monmouth Society or from a suggestion from Colonel Lewis Morris that the county should be named after Monmouthshire in Wales, Great Britain. Other suggestions include that it was named for James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (1649–1685), who had many allies among the East Jersey leadership. In 1714, the first county government was established.
At the June 28, 1778, Battle of Monmouth, near Freehold Township, General George Washington's soldiers battled the British under Sir Henry Clinton, in the longest land battle of the American Revolutionary War. It was at Monmouth that the tactics and training from Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben developed at Valley Forge during the winter encampment were first implemented on a large scale.
At independence, Monmouth's population included 1,640 slaves, as well as an undetermined number of free African Americans. The number of enslaved persons fell steeply after 1820, though a small number remained until at least 1850. Monmouth's free African American population climbed from 353 in 1790 to 2,658 in 1860.
According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 665.32 square miles (1,723.2 km2), including 468.79 square miles (1,214.2 km2) of land (70.5%) and 196.53 square miles (509.0 km2) of water (29.5%).
Much of Monmouth County remains flat and low-lying even far inland. However, there are some low hills in and around Holmdel Township, and one of them, Crawford Hill, the former site of a radar facility, is the county's highest point, variously listed at 380 to 391 feet (116 to 119 m) above sea level. The top portion of the hill is owned by Alcatel-Lucent and houses a research laboratory of Bell Laboratories. The northeastern portion of the county, in the Locust section of Middletown Township and the boroughs of Highlands and Atlantic Highlands, are also very hilly. The lowest point is sea level.
Along with adjacent Ocean County, Monmouth County is a mecca of boating and fishing. Its waterways include several rivers and bays that flow from the Raritan Bayshore into Raritan Bay and Lower New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean. The Manasquan Inlet is located in the county, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the estuary of the Manasquan River, a bay-like body of saltwater that serves as the starting point of the Intracoastal Waterway, which attracts as many as 1,600 boats each weekend during the peak season.
The county adjoins:
- Middlesex County, New Jersey – northwest
- Ocean County, New Jersey – south
- Mercer County, New Jersey – west
- Burlington County, New Jersey – southwest
- Richmond County, New York - north
- Nassau County, New York - northeast
National protected area
|Historical sources: 1790-1990
1970-2010 2000 2010 2000-2010
* = Lost territory in previous decade.
As of the census of 2010, there were 630,380 people, 233,983 households, and 163,320 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,344.7 per square mile (519.2/km2). There were 258,410 housing units at an average density of 551.2 per square mile (212.8/km2)*. The racial makeup of the county was 82.60% (520,716) White, 7.37% (46,443) Black or African American, 0.19% (1,211) Native American, 4.96% (31,258) Asian, 0.03% (211) Pacific Islander, 2.89% (18,187) from other races, and 1.96% (12,354) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.67% (60,939) of the population.
There were 233,983 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 25% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.22.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24% from 25 to 44, 30.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 91.9 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 615,301 people, 224,236 households, and 160,328 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,304 people per square mile (503/km²). There were 240,884 housing units at an average density of 510 per square mile (197/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.39% White, 8.06% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 3.97% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.74% from other races, and 1.68% from two or more races. 6.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Based on the first ancestries reported by Monmouth County residents in the 2000 Census, 23.2% of residents were of Italian ancestry, 23.0% Irish, 14.0% German, 7.5% Polish and 7.0% English ancestry.
There were 224,236 households out of which 35.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.50% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $64,271, and the median income for a family was $76,823. Males had a median income of $55,030 versus $35,415 for females. The per capita income for the county was $31,149. About 4.5% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
Roads and highways
Monmouth County has numerous important roads that pass through. As of May 2010[update], the county had a total of 3,354.67 miles (5,398.82 km) of roadways, of which 2,762.31 miles (4,445.51 km) are maintained by the local municipality, 360.42 miles (580.04 km) by Monmouth County and 204.89 miles (329.74 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 27.05 miles (43.53 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
The state routes include Route 18, Route 33, Route 33 Business, Route 34, Route 35, Route 36, Route 66, Route 70, Route 71, Route 79, and Route 138. U.S. Route 9 passes through and practically bisects Monmouth, stretching through the county for more than 20 miles (32 km) from Lakewood in Ocean County in the south to Old Bridge Township in Middlesex County to the north.
Limited access roads include Interstate 195, the only interstate to pass through the county, which extends for 8.4 miles (13.5 km) from Jackson in Ocean County on the west to Wall in Monmouth County on the east. The New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) just misses the county border by 0.2 miles (0.32 km) near Upper Freehold Township. The Garden State Parkway extends 26.5 miles (42.6 km) from Brick Township in Ocean County in the south to Old Bridge Township in Middlesex County to the north. The Parkway's Monmouth Service Area is located at milepost 100, between exits 98 and 100.
Numerous New Jersey Transit buses crisscross and deliver hundreds of passengers each day to northern New Jersey and New York's Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan as well as the 317 bus line going into Philadelphia. Many hundreds more each day travel on New Jersey Transit's North Jersey Coast Line railway line, which serves Penn Station in New York City, and passes through Middlesex County, entering Monmouth County at the Raritan River, with 14 stations covering the length of the county, connecting the New York region to Atlantic Ocean shore communities.
There's also "Dock & Roll" bus service which provides additional connections to rail and ferry service to New York City, as well as local bus service in the area, offering service between Campbell's Junction bus hub, the Middletown train station, Holmdel Towne Center, Holmdel Commons and the Bayshore Ferry Terminal
Municipalities in Monmouth County (with 2010 Census data for population, housing units and area in square miles) are listed below. Other, unincorporated communities in the county are listed next to their parent municipality. Many of these areas are census-designated places (labeled as CDPs) that have been created by the United States Census Bureau for enumeration purposes within a township, with the 2010 Census population listed. Other communities and enclaves that exist within a municipality are also listed.
(w/ map index)
|Aberdeen Township (50)||township||18,210||7,102||7.77||2.33||5.45||3,343.0||1,303.8||Cliffwood
Cliffwood Beach CDP (3,194)
Strathmore CDP (7,258)
|Asbury Park (11)||city||16,116||8,076||1.60||0.18||1.42||11,319.5||5,672.4|
|Atlantic Highlands (29)||borough||4,385||2,002||4.56||3.27||1.29||3,401.2||1,552.9||Hilton
|Bradley Beach (10)||borough||4,298||3,180||0.63||0.02||0.61||7,023.6||5,196.6|
|Brielle (1)||borough||4,774||2,034||2.37||0.62||1.76||2,717.5||1,157.8||Manasquan Park|
|Colts Neck Township (47)||township||10,142||3,735||31.79||1.06||30.73||330.0||121.5||Bucks Mill
|Fair Haven (20)||borough||6,121||2,065||2.11||0.51||1.60||3,832.5||1,292.9|
|Freehold Borough (35)||borough||12,052||4,249||1.95||0.00||1.95||6,180.8||2,179.1|
|Freehold Township (42)||township||36,184||13,140||38.73||0.22||38.50||939.8||341.3||Burlington Heights
East Freehold CDP (4,894)
West Freehold CDP (13,613)
|Hazlet Township (53)||township||20,334||7,417||5.67||0.12||5.56||3,659.4||1,334.8||Centerville
Van Marters Corner
|Holmdel Township (51)||township||16,773||5,792||18.11||0.22||17.90||937.3||323.7||Centerville
Pleasant Valley Crossroads
|Howell Township (43)||township||51,075||17,979||61.21||0.65||60.56||843.4||296.9||Adelphia
Land of Pines
Ramtown CDP (6,242)
|Keansburg (30)||borough||10,105||4,318||16.79||15.72||1.07||9,452.3||4,039.1||Tiltons Corner|
|Lake Como (6)||borough||1,759||1,115||0.27||0.01||0.25||6,943.6||4,401.4|
|Little Silver (21)||borough||5,950||2,278||3.32||0.61||2.71||2,197.3||841.3||Little Silver Point|
|Loch Arbour (12)||village||194||159||0.14||0.04||0.10||1,928.2||1,580.4|
|Long Branch (16)||city||30,719||14,170||6.28||1.01||5.27||5,824.4||2,686.7||Branchport
East Long Branch
North Long Branch
|Manalapan Township (41)||township||38,872||13,735||30.84||0.23||30.61||1,270.0||448.8||Clarks Mills
Yorketown CDP (6,535)
|Marlboro Township (49)||township||40,191||13,436||30.47||0.11||30.36||1,323.7||442.5||Beacon Hill
Morganville CDP (5,040)
Robertsville CDP (11,297)
|Middletown Township (52)||township||66,522||24,959||58.73||17.75||40.99||1,622.9||608.9||Belford CDP (1,768)
Fairview CDP (3,806)
Leonardo CDP (2,757)
Lincroft CDP (6,135)
Navesink CDP (2,020)
New Monmouth (28,689)
North Middletown CDP (3,295)
Port Monmouth CDP (3,818)
|Millstone Township (40)||township||10,566||3,434||37.27||0.68||36.59||288.8||93.9||Bairdsville
|Monmouth Beach (17)||borough||3,279||1,981||2.07||0.99||1.08||3,049.5||1,842.4||Galilee|
|Neptune Township (45)||township||27,935||12,991||8.67||0.49||8.18||3,414.3||1,587.8||Bradley Park
Ocean Grove CDP (3,342)
Shark River Hills CDP (3,697)
|Neptune City (9)||borough||4,869||2,312||0.95||0.00||0.95||5,105.0||2,424.0|
|Ocean Township (46)||township||27,291||11,541||11.00||0.12||10.88||2,509.1||1,061.1||Cold Indian Springs
Oakhurst CDP (3,995)
Wanamassa CDP (4,532)
West Allenhurst (1,934)
|Red Bank (26)||borough||12,206||5,381||2.16||0.42||1.74||7,019.1||3,094.4|
|Sea Bright (18)||borough||1,412||1,211||1.29||0.56||0.73||1,935.5||1,659.9||Low Moor
|Sea Girt (3)||borough||1,828||1,291||1.45||0.39||1.06||1,729.6||1,221.5|
|Shrewsbury Borough (25)||borough||3,809||1,310||2.20||0.03||2.17||1,757.2||604.4|
|Shrewsbury Township (48)||township||1,141||648||0.10||0.00||0.10||10,877.7||6,177.7|
|Spring Lake (5)||borough||2,993||2,048||1.73||0.40||1.33||2,250.8||1,540.2||North Spring Lake|
|Spring Lake Heights (4)||borough||4,713||2,972||1.31||0.03||1.28||3,671.3||2,315.1||Villa Park|
|Tinton Falls (27)||borough||17,892||8,766||15.62||0.14||15.49||1,155.3||566.0||Green Grove
|Union Beach (31)||borough||6,245||2,269||1.89||0.09||1.80||3,461.5||1,257.7||Natco
Van Marters Corner
|Upper Freehold Township (39)||township||6,902||2,458||47.23||0.82||46.42||148.7||53.0||Arneytown
|Wall Township (44)||township||26,164||10,883||31.74||1.06||30.67||853.0||354.8||Algers Mills
Allenwood CDP (925)
West Belmar CDP (2,493)
|West Long Branch (23)||borough||8,097||2,528||2.89||0.04||2.86||2,832.9||884.5|
Climate and weather
|Weather chart for Freehold Borough, New Jersey|
|temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: The Weather Channel
Monmouth County has a humid subtropical climate. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Freehold Borough have ranged from a low of 22 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −13 °F (−25 °C) was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 106 °F (41 °C) was recorded in July 2011. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.98 inches (76 mm) in February to 5.08 inches (129 mm) in July.
On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused catastrophic damage to coastal areas of Monmouth County. As Sandy's surge arrived in Monmouth County, flood levels of 13.31 feet (4.06 m) above normal were measured at Sandy Hook shortly before the destruction of the tidal station, breaking all previous local records. The surge caused waves as high as 32.5 feet (9.9 m), measured where the Sandy Hook Bay meets the New York Bay.
Monmouth County, New Jersey Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.