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Greater Cleveland

Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area
Moon over Cleveland (33388400986).jpg
Cleveland-Akron-Canton, Ohio CSA Based on 2013 U.S. Census Definitions
Cleveland-Akron-Canton, Ohio CSA Based on 2013 U.S. Census Definitions
Country Flag of the United States.svg United States
States Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
Largest city Cleveland
Other cities in MSA
Population
 (2020)
 • MSA
2,088,251 (34th)
 • CSA
3,633,962 (17th)
Time zone UTC−5 (ET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Area code(s) 216, 330, 440, 234

The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to the 2020 United States Census results, the five-county Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,088,251, making Greater Cleveland the 34th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, and the second largest metropolitan area in Ohio. The city of Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area with a population of over 3.6 million people, the most populous metropolitan area in Ohio and the 17th most populous in the entire United States.

Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but substantially larger region that is home to over 4.5 million residents that also includes areas not part of Greater Cleveland. This article covers the area considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information generally applicable to the larger region, which is itself part of what is known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve.

Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market.

Combined Statistical Area

The larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined Statistical Area is the 15th-largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States, and includes the above counties plus Ashtabula County, Carroll County, Erie County, Huron County, Portage County, Stark County, Summit County, and Tuscarawas County, with a population of 3,515,646.

The Cleveland-Akron-Canton television Designated Market Area covers this area, and all of Northeast Ohio except for the Youngstown/Warren region. It is the 18th largest in the United States, according to Nielsen Media Research. Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market. The Greater Cleveland area is also part of the larger Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Northeast Ohio

Northeast Ohio consists of 16 counties (Ashland, Ashtabula, Carroll, Columbiana, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Portage, Richland, Stark, Summit, Trumbull and Wayne counties) and includes the cities of Akron, Ashland, Ashtabula, Brunswick, Canton, Cleveland, Elyria, Lorain, Mansfield, Medina, Wadsworth, Wooster, Warren, and Youngstown. Northeast Ohio is home to approximately 4 million people, has a labor force of almost 2 million, and a gross regional product of nearly $170 billion. Other counties are sometimes considered to be in Northeast Ohio. These include Erie, Holmes, Huron and Tuscarawas counties, and their inclusion makes the total population of the entire northeastern section of Ohio well over 4.5 million people.

Counties

Cities, townships, and villages

Cuyahoga County

Geauga County

Lake County

Lorain County

Medina County

Cities by population

These, in decreasing order of population, are the eight largest cities in Greater Cleveland of (2010):

City 2010
population
Cleveland 396,815
Parma 81,601
Lorain 64,097
Elyria 54,533
Lakewood 52,131
Euclid 48,920
Mentor 47,159
Cleveland Heights 46,121

Demographics

See also: Demographics of Cleveland
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 131,107 —    
1860 161,687 +23.3%
1870 212,535 +31.4%
1880 284,499 +33.9%
1890 403,731 +41.9%
1900 552,359 +36.8%
1910 774,657 +40.2%
1920 1,103,877 +42.5%
1930 1,397,426 +26.6%
1940 1,432,124 +2.5%
1950 1,680,736 +17.4%
1960 2,126,983 +26.6%
1970 2,321,037 +9.1%
1980 2,173,734 −6.3%
1990 2,102,248 −3.3%
2000 2,148,143 +2.2%
2010 2,077,240 −3.3%
2020 2,088,251 +0.5%
* = Population estimate.
Source: U.S. Decennial Census

According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2.077 million in the five-county MSA of the Greater Cleveland Area, making it the second largest metropolitan-statistical area entirely within the state of Ohio. Approximately 48.1% of the population was male and 51.9% were female. In 2010 the racial makeup of the five-county Area was 71.7% (1,490,074) Non-Hispanic Whites, 19.7% (409,582) Blacks or African Americans, 0.2% (4,056) American Indians and Alaskan Natives, 2.0% (40,522) Asian (0.7% Asian Indian 0.5% Chinese 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.0% (398) Pacific Islander, 1.7% (35,224) from other races, and 2.0% (42,130) from two or more races. 4.7% (98,133) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (2.8% Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican, 0.1% Dominican, and 0.1% Cuban).

ISS-34 Night view of Cleveland, Ohio
NASA satellite photograph of Cleveland at night

The median income for a household in Greater Cleveland was $46,231 and the median income for a family, $59,611. The per capita income was $25,668. Persons living below the poverty line was 15.1%. According to a study by Capgemini and the World Wealth Report by Merrill Lynch, the Cleveland area has nearly 54,000 millionaire households, and is expected to continue to grow at 17% over the next five years.

The Greater Cleveland area is the most diverse region in the state of Ohio and is becoming increasingly more diverse with new waves of immigration. As of 2010, both the Hispanic and Asian population in the Cleveland-Akron-Ashtabula area grew by almost 40%, Hispanics now number at 112,307 (up from 80,738 in 2000). The Asian population alone accounts for 55,087 (up from 39,586 in 2000) but people who cite Asian and other ethnicities enumerate 67,231. The Chinese Americans are the oldest Asian group residing in Northeast Ohio, most visible in Cleveland's Asiatown. Nevertheless, the area is also home to hundreds of Thais, Taiwanese, Pakistanis, Laotians, Cambodians, and Burmese peoples as well.

The Cleveland area has a substantial African American population with origins in the First and Second Great Migrations. It also boasts some of the nation's largest Irish, Italian (numbering over 205,000), Slavic, and Hungarian populations. At one time, the Hungarian population of Cleveland proper was so great that the city boasted of having the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. Today, the Greater Cleveland area is home to the largest Slovak, Slovene, and Hungarian communities in the world, outside of Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary respectively. The Slavic population of the Cleveland-Akron area comprises 17.2%, far higher than the nation's rate of 6%. There are 171,000 Poles, 38,000 Slovaks, 66,000 Slovenes, 38,000 Czechs, 31,000 Russians, and 23,000 Ukrainians in Greater Cleveland. Slavic Village and Tremont historically had some of the largest concentrations of Eastern Europeans within Cleveland proper. Today, both neighborhoods continue to be home to many Slavic Ohioans. In addition, Slovenia maintains a Consulate-General in Downtown Cleveland. The city of Cleveland has also received visits from the Presidents of Hungary and Poland.

Greater Cleveland is home to a sizable Jewish community. According to the North American Jewish Data Bank, the community comprises an estimated 86,600 people or 3.0% as of 2011, above the nation's 1.7%, and up from 81,500 in 1996. The highest proportion is in Cuyahoga County at 5.5% (of the county's total population). Today, 23% of Greater Cleveland's Jewish population is under the age of 17, and 27% reside in the Heights area (Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights, and University Heights). In 2010 nearly 2,600 people spoke Hebrew and 1,100 Yiddish.

Ancestry

The top largest ancestries in the Greater Cleveland MSA, were the following:

Place of birth

Approximately 94.1% of the metropolitan area's population was native to the United States. Approximately 92.8% were born in the U.S. while 1.3% were born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or born abroad to American parents. The rest of the population (5.9%) were foreign-born. The highest percentages of immigrants came from Europe (46.2%), Asia (32.7%), Latin America (14.3%); smaller percentages of newcomers came from Africa (3.6%), other parts of North America (3.0%), and Oceania (0.3%).

According to the American Community Survey 2006-2010, the number of Greater Cleveland area residents born overseas was 119,136 and the leading countries of origin were India (10,067), China (7,756), Mexico (6,051), Ukraine (7,211), Germany (5,742), Italy (4,114), Canada (4,102), United Kingdom (4,048), Romania (3,947), Poland (3,834), Russia (3,826), and Yugoslavia (3,820).

Language spoken at home

English is by far the most commonly spoken language at home by residents in the Cleveland-Akron-Elyria area; approximately 91.2% of the population over the age of five spoke only English at home. Spanish speakers made up 2.8% of the population; speakers of Asian languages made up 1.1% of the population; speakers of other Indo-European languages made up 3.9% of the population. Individuals who spoke languages other than the ones above represented the remaining 1.0% of the populace. As of 2011, individually in addition to English, 2.7% spoke Spanish, 0.6% German, 0.5% Arabic, and 0.5% Chinese. 1.4% also spoke a Slavic language. In 2007, Cleveland area was home to the nation's 3rd highest proportion of Hungarian speakers.

County 2020 Census 2010 Census Change Area Density
Cuyahoga County 1,264,817 1,280,122 Template:Number table sorting/negative−1.20% 457.19 sq mi (1,184.1 km2) 2,767/sq mi (1,068/km2)
Geauga County 95,397 93,389 &10000000000000002150146+2.15% 400.16 sq mi (1,036.4 km2) 238/sq mi (92/km2)
Lake County 232,603 230,041 &10000000000000001113714+1.11% 227.49 sq mi (589.2 km2) 1,022/sq mi (395/km2)
Lorain County 312,964 301,356 &10000000000000003851922+3.85% 491.10 sq mi (1,271.9 km2) 637/sq mi (246/km2)
Medina County 182,470 172,332 &10000000000000005882830+5.88% 421.36 sq mi (1,091.3 km2) 433/sq mi (167/km2)
Total 2,088,251 2,077,240 &10000000000000000530078+0.53% 2,045.81 sq mi (5,298.6 km2) 1,021/sq mi (394/km2)

Transportation

Airports

Greater Cleveland is served by international, regional and county airports, including:

  • Burke Lakefront Airport (Cleveland)
  • Concord Airpark Airport (Concord Township)
  • Cuyahoga County Airport
  • Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (Cleveland)
  • Lorain County Regional Airport (Russia Township)
  • Willoughby Lost Nation Municipal Airport (Willoughby)

Highways

Cleveland Interstate Highways map
The Greater Cleveland highway network
  • I-71.svgInterstate 71
  • I-77.svgInterstate 77
  • I-80.svgOhioTurnpike.svg Interstate 80 (Ohio Turnpike)
  • I-90.svgInterstate 90
  • I-271.svgInterstate 271
  • I-277.svgInterstate 277
  • I-480.svgInterstate 480
  • I-490.svgInterstate 490
  • US 6.svgU.S. Route 6
  • US 20.svgU.S. Route 20
  • US 42.svgU.S. Route 42
  • US 224.svgU.S. Route 224
  • US 250.svgU.S. Route 250
  • US 322.svgU.S. Route 322
  • US 422.svgU.S. Route 422
  • OH-2.svgOhio State Route 2
  • OH-3.svgOhio State Route 3
  • OH-8.svgOhio State Route 8
  • OH-10.svgOhio State Route 10
  • OH-11.svgOhio State Route 11
  • OH-14.svgOhio State Route 14
  • OH-17.svgOhio State Route 17
  • OH-18.svgOhio State Route 18
  • OH-21.svgOhio State Route 21
  • OH-43.svgOhio State Route 43
  • OH-44.svgOhio State Route 44
  • OH-83.svgOhio State Route 83
  • OH-88.svgOhio State Route 88
  • OH-91.svgOhio State Route 91
  • OH-113.svgOhio State Route 113
  • OH-175.svgOhio State Route 175
  • OH-176.svgOhio State Route 176
  • OH-225.svgOhio State Route 225
  • OH-254.svgOhio State Route 254
  • OH-700.svgOhio State Route 700
  • OH-711.svgOhio State Route 711

Public transit

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority operates a bus system and heavy and light rail in Cuyahoga County. Other transit agencies serve the surrounding counties and provide connections with RTA, including Laketran in Lake County, and Lorain County Transit in Lorain County. Cleveland's RTA Red Line which started in 1955, is the eighth oldest heavy rail rapid transit in the Country In 2007, RTA was named the best public transit system in North America by the American Public Transportation Association, for "demonstrating achievement in efficiency and effectiveness."

Sports and recreation

Jacobs Field panorama
Progressive Field, home of the Cleveland Guardians

Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Guardians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). The Lake County Captains, a Single-A minor league affiliate of the Cleveland Guardians, play in Eastlake at Classic Park. Additionally, the Lake Erie Crushers of the Frontier League play at Sprenger Stadium in Avon.

Minor league hockey is represented in the area by the Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League. They began play in the 2007–08 AHL season at the Quicken Loans Arena. The team is the top minor league affiliate of the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League.

The Cleveland Metroparks are a system of nature preserves that encircle the city, and the Cuyahoga Valley National Park encompasses the Cuyahoga River valley between Cleveland and Akron. The region is home to Mentor Headlands Beach, the longest natural beach on the Great Lakes.

Notable natives

See also: List of people from Cleveland, Ohio

Economy

Commerce by Daniel Chester French, 1912 - Cleveland, Ohio - DSC07918
Commerce by Daniel Chester French at the Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse on Superior Avenue, Cleveland

In 2011 the Greater Cleveland area had a GDP of $134.4 billion (up from $130.7 billion in 2008), which would rank 57th among countries. Cleveland also has the twelfth highest merchandise value at $109.2 billion.

Business and industry

More than 37% of Fortune 500 companies are present in Northeast Ohio, through corporate headquarters, major divisions, subsidiaries, and sales offices. In addition, more than 150 international companies have a presence there. As of 2006, Northeast Ohio serves as the corporate headquarters of 22 Fortune 1000 firms (shown with 2017 rankings below):

Other large employers include:

  • Agilysis (Mayfield Heights, electronics)
  • Babcock & Wilcox (Barberton, engineering)
  • Cafaro Corp (Youngstown, mall management and properties)
  • Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, health care)
  • DeBartolo-York Corp (Boardman Township, Youngstown, mall management and properties)
  • Eaton Corporation (North American HQ - Beachwood, electrical parts manufacturing)
  • Exal Corp Aluminum Production (Youngstown, metals)
  • Ferro Corporation (Cleveland, advanced material manufacturing)
  • Forest City Enterprises (Cleveland, real estate development)
  • Gojo (Akron, chemicals)
  • Home Savings and Loan (Youngstown, banking)
  • IMG (Cleveland, sports marketing and management)
  • Invacare (Elyria, medical products and equipment)
  • Jo Ann Stores (Hudson, specialty retailer)
  • Jones Day (Cleveland, legal services)
  • Lubrizol Corporation (Wickliffe, lubricants and chemicals)
  • Mayfran International (Cleveland, conveyors)
  • Nacco Industries (Cleveland, industrial equipment)
  • Nestlé USA (Solon, food processing)
  • Roadway Express (Akron, logistics)
  • Rockwell Automation (Mayfield Heights, industrial controls)
  • SITE Centers (Beachwood, real estate development)
  • Summa Health System (Akron, health care)
  • University Hospitals of Cleveland (Cleveland, health care)

Small businesses and startups

The Council of Smaller Enterprises coordinates and advocates for small businesses in the region. Many of the area's sustainability-oriented companies are tied into the network Entrepreneurs for Sustainability.

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